Georgia is where Europe meets Asia, bounded on the west by the Black sea, the north by Russia, the south by Turkey and Armenia and to the east by Azerbaijan. Climate is hugely varied, ranging from subtropical to high alpine and to semi-desert. About 80% of Georgia is mountainous. The north border with Russia is formed by the Greater Caucasus mountain range, this barrier protects Georgia from cold air invasion from the north and the ice-clad flanks of these desolately beautiful high regions supply many of its streams and rivers. The South branch of the Caucasus Mountain range is located almost in parallel to the North one. Yet, essentially for its viticulture, the country is open on its western limits to the constant influence of warm, moisty air from the Black Sea.
A circle of latitude 41°42’ 35’’ N-44°47’ 36’’ E The highest picks of the Greater Caucasus from North are: Shkhara 5, 058. a.s.l. / Kazbegi 5, 047 m. a.s.l.
The climate of Georgia is diverse due to the specific geographic conditions. Georgia is located on the border of subtropical and temperature climates between the black sea and the Caspian Sea and has a complex relief due to the geology and the topography. In the relatively small territory of Georgia a great variety of regional and local climates exist, humid subtropical climate, permanent snow and glaciers and dry subcontinental climate in southern Georgia. The climate in eastern Georgia is dry and continental, with hot summers and mild winters, in eastern Georgia the humidity and precipitation are low and so is cloudiness. The temperature variations are great, while western Georgia has a warm tropical climate on the Black sea coast, western Georgia situated on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and surrounded by the mountains has humid subtropical climate with a small variation in temperatures, with high precipitation and high humidity. The Greater Caucasus range moderates local climate by serving as a barrier against cold air from the north. Warm, moist air from the Black Sea moves easily into the coastal lowlands from the west.
Average temperature: Summer 20/24°C & Winter 2/-5°C
Georgia has trade deals with the World Trade Organization and US; The EU and Georgia signed an Association Agreement on 27 June 2014 it has entered into force since 1 July 2016. The agreement introduces a preferential trade regime – the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA). Free trade agreement between Georgia and the People’s Republic of China will come into force in the second half of 2017. Georgia will be the first country in the region to have free trade agreement with China.
The Georgian language is the official language of Georgia. The Georgian language is one of the oldest continuously spoken languages on earth with a rich literary tradition. It is a member of the South Caucasian (Kartvelian) Language Family in the Iberian- Caucasian Language group. Georgian alphabet is one of the unique 14 existing alphabets in the world. It consists of 33 letters.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has added the Georgian alphabet to the list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (2016).
“The Georgian Language expresses everything that a any human language is capable of expressing. The Georgian language is so rich that by its peculiar intricacies it is a language of worldwide significance”N.Y. Marr
Georgian Historian and Linguist